A Random Bubbles Picture with ImageJ

In the last post, I described how to create an image with random B&W patterns by using random noise and bandpass filtering. This time I will show an even simpler trick with ImageJ, the creation of an image with random bubbles.

Start as before by opening ImageJ and making a new image.

bubble1.jpg

Fill the originally black image with specified random noise of standard deviation 3.0 (Process > Noise > Add Specified Noise ).

bubble2.jpg

Next, choose Process > Filters > Minimum and set the “radius” to 20 pixels. This will replace the brightness value of every pixel in the original image with the smallest brightness value that can be found in its circular neighborhood of that radius.

bubble3.jpg

Next do an edge detection, from the menu Process > Find Edges. The resulting image looks like this.

bubble4.jpg

Finally, modify the brightness of the image and add contrast (both done in Image > Adjust > Brightness/Contrast).

bubble5

Now we have a quite good bubbles image, but it has a rather poor resolution, as can be seen by zooming in:

 

The solution to this is to use the Inkscape vector graphics program to “trace” the bitmap and then export it in a PNG file of a larger resolution. Choose Path > Trace Bitmap from the Inkscape menu and use the “Brightness Cutoff” to do this.

Screenshot from 2017-07-29 13-48-06

If this is done by producing a 2-color vector image (not by multiple brightness steps), the result and the zoom look like this:

bubble-vector.jpg

bubble-vector-zoom.jpg

So, no more pixelization or blurring. The Inkscape program is easy to use and shouldn’t cause trouble. Another way to do the same thing is to use some online image vectorization service.

More image processing stuff coming soon, have fun!

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Creating Bitmaps with Random Patterns

This time I’m going to write about image processing and computer graphics. Many of you may have seen procedurally generated textures – bitmaps that look like something from the real world such as rusted steel, marble or stone, but are not photos, being completely computer generated. It may initially seem strange that it’s possible to produce patterns with such natural-looking randomness with a mathematical algorithm. The trick is to use random noise (similar to static on an old television screen) and apply cleverly chosen filters on that.

Let me show how to produce an image with random black spots/stripes on a white background, similar to the pattern of a zebra or some breeds of dog. First, we need a free image processing program called ImageJ, downloadable for Windows or Linux from this address.

First, we will choose New > Image from the File menu, and set the resolution of a new blank image to 1000 x 1000 pixels.

spots-1

The result is an all-black bitmap as you see below.

spots-2

Next, we will add gray random noise with a specified standard deviation of pixel brightness. Choose Noise > Add Specified Noise from the Process menu, and set the standard deviation to value 3.00.

spots-3.jpg

The resulting image looks like that below, where you see the familiar “TV static” appearance.

spots-4

Next we will do a so-called bandpass filtering on the image. The idea here is that the program first converts the image to a Fourier transform, which is a function that tells how much of different “wavelengths” are present in the image. An image that consists of large features (with a characteristic diameter of a large number of pixels) has a high amount of large-wavelength Fourier components, while an image that contains small features has a high amount of short-wavelength components. After converting the image to the Fourier transform the bandpass filtering algorithm removes all components with wavelengths that don’t lie on a desired interval and then does an inverse Fourier transform to produce a filtered image.

Choose FFT > Bandpass Filter from the Process menu and set the lower limit to 30 pixels and the upper limit to 100 pixels. This will remove all features with characteristic lengths that are not in that interval. The result looks like this:

spots-5

This resulting image is pretty much the same as Perlin’s fractal noise, which is very important in computer generated graphics.

Next, we have to do a “color quantization” that converts the image to a maximum contrast one, having only all-black or all-white pixels. To do this,  choose Adjust > Brightness/Contrast from the Image menu.

Dragging the Contrast bar to maximum value, we obtain a two-color image that has random spots/stripes as wanted. If the contrast adjustment doesn’t seem to work, try changing the image type to “RGB Color” from the Image menu first.

spots-7.jpg

Spots of different sizes can be created by changing the upper and lower limits in the bandpass filtering stage. If an image with a larger resolution is desired, the image can be converted to a vector image with a program such as Inkscape, and printed back into a .PNG bitmap file of a higher resolution. This will produce a larger image without blurring or pixelization.

More complicated filtering and coloring procedures can be done to produce images like this one here, but I will write more about it later.

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